Advances In Management

Indexed in SCOPUS, Chemical Abstracts Services, UGC, NAAS and Indian Citation Index etc.

Advances In Management

Vol. 10(10) December 2017

The role of the Human Relations School vis a vis today’s Human Resource Management

Busse Ronald and Warner Malcolm

In this research note, we speculate about how management theory might have evolved without the influence of the Hawthorne bias. This will, in turn, lead us to question the Hawthorne ‘bequest’ for the Human Relations School (HRS), Human Resource Management (HRM) and Organizational Behaviour (OB). We hope to open a debate on managerial elites and by that on potential benefits through leaving the ‘straightjacket’ of Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856- 1915) and his notions of Scientific Management (SM) on the one hand, or the possible disadvantages through a rather subtle form of psychological and moral control of the workforce with the HRS on the other hand. We then seek to shed light on the change between ‘rational’ and ‘normative’ interpretations and the problem that the episodic rhythm of ‘ideology’ wavechanges may or may not be based on ‘false facts’. In last, we qualify our own and other scholars’ critique on the Hawthorne studies, as we attempt to empathize with contemporary perspectives.

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A Study on the Impacts of Endorser Type and Involvement Level in Large-Scale Sports Events on Endorsers’ Credibility and Advertising Effectiveness

Chuang Hsiang-Ta, Tsai Yi-Chih and Wu Tzu-Ying

This study investigated the Universiade event to explore the impacts of endorser type and involvement on endorsers’ credibility and advertising effectiveness. An experimental design was applied. Endorser type (professional athlete endorser/non-athlete endorser) and involvement degree (high/low involvement) were set as the independent variables and endorsers’ credibility and advertising effectiveness were set as dependent variables. The effects of the independent variables on differences in the dependent variables were examined. With regard to the design of the experimental conditions, the questionnaire survey method was employed. The participants in this study were university students. Four different experimental conditions were designed, with a total of 125 participants. The experiments explored the impacts of consumer involvement on endorsers’ credibility and advertising effectiveness for different types of endorsers. The differences between the two variables were also observed. Thus, 2×2=4 group experiments were conducted. The results in this study indicated that endorser type and involvement level had significant effects on endorsers’ credibility. The credibility of professional athlete endorsers was significantly higher than that of non-athlete endorsers. Endorser type and involvement level were found to significantly affect advertising effectiveness. The advertising effectiveness of professional athlete endorsers was significantly higher than that of nonathlete endorsers. Moreover, professional athlete endorsers and high involvement levels resulted in higher endorser credibility and advertising effectiveness, indicating a significant interaction effect of endorser type and involvement level on endorsers’ credibility and advertising effectiveness. Thus, higher relevance of endorsers with regard to sports events increases their influence on advertising effectiveness. Sportsmen endorsing sports events have a greater impact on consumers than those who are not professional sportsmen. They are better able to create positive marketing benefits for a sports event brand. In view of developments in media, enterprise-media interaction is an important link in effective sports marketing. Therefore, when selecting sports event endorsers, companies must consider endorser type and involvement levels.

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A Study of Runners' Marathon Race Participation Motivations, Service Satisfaction and Perceived Leisure Benefits

Hung Hsiao-Ching

The purpose of this study is to understand the marathon race participation motivations of the runners, the satisfaction of the service and the leisure benefits of self-perception. The questionnaire survey was conducted to facilitate the sampling of the participants in the Kinmen Marathon Race. The questionnaire data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and SEM statistical analysis. The results showed that:
1. Marathon participants participate motivations have a positive influence on the service satisfaction of race.
2. Marathon participants' motivations and satisfaction with event services have a positive influence on selfperceived leisure benefits. Based on the results of the study, this study presents recommendations for prospective researchers and the organizers of the marathon race.

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Mediation of Brand Equity on Word of Mouth: A Study with Special Reference to Customers of Fashion Products in India

Hamza V.K. and Gupta Rahul

Brand Equity has been considered as the intervening variable among several antecedents to consequences. This study hypothesized the function of Brand Equity as a mediator between Brand Awareness, Brand Association, Brand Image, Perceived Quality and Brand Loyalty towards Word of Mouth. The results of the study stated that the Brand Equity fully mediated certain antecedents and partially mediated with others. The absence and subsistence of mediation for brand equity among the antecedents and consequences have been proved with respect to the Fashion Industry in India.

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