Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Indexed in SCOPUS, Chemical Abstracts Services, UGC, NAAS and Indian Citation Index etc.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Removal of copper phthalocyanine in reactive blue 21 dye by FeNiAl adsorbent

Abdullah W.N.W., Mat N.F.N. and Rosid S.J.M.

Page No. 1-8

Reactive blue 21 (RB 21) is one of the dyes which is highly demanded in the market due to quality, effectiveness and the variety of tints and shades. However, it is harmful to human life. Therefore, a simple and efficient method to remove this reactive metal (copper phthalocyanine) in the dye was conducted using FeNiAl adsorbent. Spinel (Fe, Ni) Al2O3 composites (FeNiAl) were prepared by introducing Fe and Ni ions into a γ-Al2O3 framework via an electrochemical method.

The physiochemical properties of the adsorbents were studied by FT-IR, SEM-EDX, XRD and BET. The effect of reaction time, pH changes, amount of adsorbent, calcination temperature of adsorbent and initial of dye concentration were examined for the removal of RB 21. The maximum removal of the RB 21was achieved at pH 6 using 0.2 g sorbent dose for 150 minutes reaction time at 400oC calcination temperature with initial concentration of 20 mg/L.

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Biogenic synthesis of Cobalt nanopaticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and their antibacterial activity

Kharade Suvarta D., Nikam Gurunath H., Mane Gavade Shubhangi J., Patil Sachinkumar R. and Gaikwad Kishor V.

Page No. 9-13

In this study, simple, fast, cost effective approach has been applied for synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract at R.T. The synthesized NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The as-synthesized CoNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure.

Hibiscus cannabinus showed reducing and stabilizing properties. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized CoNPs was investigated against Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli by Agar Well Diffusion Method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove alternative to physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of CoNPs.

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Investigations on the removal of mefenamic acid from water using Fenton process

Anju Krishna M.S., Deepa R. and Madhu G.

Page No. 14-21

Mefenamic acid is a commonly used non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drug whose concentration has been found to be above the no effect concentration in many water sources. The removal of mefenamic acid from water using Fenton process was investigated to find the optimum level of oxidant H2O2 and the catalyst (Fe2+) at an optimum pH of 2.8. The extent of mineralization of the compound was also studied by monitoring the COD values before and after the Fenton process. Taguchi Method of design of experiments was employed to optimise the main operating parameters like Fe2+and H2O2 concentration.

The concentration levels such as 1mM Fe2+ and 1mM H2O2 showed maximum removal efficiency of mefenamic acid. Also, a 73.68% COD reduction was noticed for those particular optimum removal concentrations. The decrease in removal efficiency and negative COD removal was also noticed at higher concentration of H2O2.

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A Comparative Study of Direct Ultrafiltration Process and Membrane Photocatalytic Reactor System for Textile Wastewater Treatment

Desa A.L., Dahlan D., Misdan N., Abu Bakar Sidik D., Hairom N.H.H., Leman A.M., Abdullahi T., Harun Z. and Yusof N.

Page No. 22-30

The critical membrane fouling phenomenon in the industrial dye wastewater application remains unresolved despite the extensive research on membrane technology. Therefore, the present study systematically assessed the performance of direct ultrafiltration (UF) process and membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) system (a combination of UF process and photocatalysis) in terms of flux decline and permeate quality analysis. Two types of UF membranes were used namely polysulfone (PSf) US020 (UF-PSf) and polypiperazine-amide (PPA) UA60 (UF-PPA).

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analysis were used to evaluate the chemical structure, surface morphology and hydrophilicity of both membranes. The direct UF-PPA membrane achieved the lowest final permeate flux of about 0.17 L/m2h at 60 minutes and the highest dye rejection performance of about 94.81%. However, the MPR system with the use of UF-PPA membrane recorded a maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.61%. The resultant outcomes of this study enhance the understanding of the membrane technology system and photocatalysis process.

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Determination of phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activity test from ethanol extract of biak-leaves (Mitragyna speciosa) with ABTS method [2,2-azinobis- (3-ethylbenzotiazolin) -6-sulfonic acid]

Wijaya Heri, Jubaidah Siti, KadriAnsyori Achmad, Nurhasnawati Henny and Poddar Sandeep

Page No. 31-35

Biak-biak(Mitragyna speciosa) is a medicinal plant including the family Rubiaceae. Empirically the people of BangunUlu City, Kota Bangun District, Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Kalimantan, use the leaves of Biak-biak as herbal medicines. Biak-biak can be used to treat wounds, fevers, diarrhea, muscle aches, coughs, to increase endurance, to reduce high pressure, to increase energy, to overcome depression, antidiabetic and sexual stimulants. Reproduction plants contain flavonoid chemical compounds as the biggest phenolic group.

This study aimed to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid levels as well as the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the Biak-biak leaves. Determination of total phenolic levels used the folin-ciocalteau method while the determination of total flavonoids used the AlCl3 method. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid levels used UV-visible spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activity test used the ABTS method [2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin)-6-sulfonicacid] by finding the IC50 value. The results obtained in total phenolic levels of ethanol extract of the Biak-biak leaves at 10.3696±0.2432 mg GAE/g show that every gram of ethanol extract of the leaves of the Biak-biak is equivalent to 10,3696 mg gallic acid. Determination of flavonoid levels measured at 440 nm wavelength is 3.951±0.033%. The ethanol extract of the leaves is categorized as very strong antioxidant because it has an IC 50 value of less than 50 ppm.

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Application of Acrylic acid and Sodium Styrene Sulfonate grafted Non-Woven PE Fabric in Methylene Blue Removal

Rahman Nazia, Dafader Nirmal Chandra, Shahnaz S., Ahmed Farah Tasneem and Miah Abdur Rahim

Page No. 36-43

Environmental pollution caused by textile dyeing effluents is a major concern and treatment of dye effluents before their discharge into the environment is essential. In present study acrylic acid and sodium styrene sulfonate grafted non-woven PE fabric were prepared by the application of gamma rays from Co-60 source at room temperature. The new absorbent prepared was used for absorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. Dye absorption capacity of the absorbent was studied at different contact time, pH and initial concentration of MB solution.

Dye absorption of the absorbent reaches equilibrium value after 24 hours standing time. The absorption capacity was found highest at pH 4.38 and initial dye concentration 1000 ppm. Kinetics and isotherm of MB adsorption by the adsorbent were studied. Experimental data fitted well with pseudo 2nd order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. The monolayer saturation adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm model is 250 mg/g of the adsorbent. Desorption and reuse of the absorbent were also successful. The results indicate that the acrylic acid and sodium styrene sulfonate grafted PE absorbent can be used for removal of cationic dye from industrial waste waters.

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Diversity of Desmids from some water bodies of Satara district, Maharashtra (India)

Patil S.V. and Karande V.C.

Page No. 44-50

The present study deals with the study of diversity of desmids with respect to their ecological conditions. The aim of this study was to conduct taxonomical and ecological survey of desmids from the major water bodies around Satara. A total of 11 genera and 52 species of desmids were reported in this present study from five lentic water bodies viz. Kas lake, Urmodi dam, Kanher dam, Venna lake and Dhom dam from Satara district.

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Antibacterial Properties of Ditepene from “Ki Rinyuh” (Astroeupatorium inulifolium) Leaves

Hernandi Sujono, Sandi V.Z. Siswanto, Sari Purbaya, Yana Maolana Syah and Jasmansyah

Page No. 51-52

A known nor-labdane, inulifolinone E (1) had been isolated from the extract of the whole plant of “Ki Rinyuh” (Austraeupatorium inulifolium) growing in West Java, Indonesia. The structure of the compound was determined by NMR data (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC). Antibacterial properties of compound 1 was also determined and was found to be not active.

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Heavy fuels combustion in the atmosphere: impact on oxygen partial pressure drop, environment and health

Salker A.V.

Page No. 53-56

The study deals with some modelling study of measured outdoor oxygen concentration to describe the formation of CO, CO2, NO, H2O, coke particulates etc. from octane or diesel fuel reacting O2 - N2 mixture from air. Fossil fuel combustion needs large amount of oxygen, which is taken from atmospheric air for generating required amount of energy, besides also generates significant combustion products as pollutants.

Out of the total amount of energy generated, a significant quantum is lost as heat and friction in driving the vehicle. It appears that there is a growing imbalance in the production and consumption of oxygen in the atmosphere due to heavy fuel combustions. It may be shocking that heavy combustion may lead to oxygen drop in atmospheric air mostly in cities where plantations and vegetations are scanty. This drop of oxygen and combustion pollutants are of great concern to health for all as slow poison.

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Artificial neural network modeling for decolorization of textile dye mixture using low cost adsorbent

Banerjee Soumitra, Datta Siddhartha and Debsarkar Anupam

Page No. 57-60

The objective of the present study is the adsorptive removal of mixture of two basic dyes methylene blue and malachite green by using jack fruit leaf ash as low cost adsorbent. The influence of different physical parameters like bed height of the adsorbent, initial dye concentration, pH of the dye solution and flow rate has been recorded during the removal process under column mode operation. It is an approach to solve the real life problems of industries by the removal of more than one dye at a time by using a low cost adsorbent. The maximum efficiency of dye removal has been observed at lower flow rate (5mL/min) with 6cm bed height and 25 mg/L initial dye concentration under alkaline pH of 9.2.

An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed to predict the performance of dye removal data obtained in the laboratory experiment. This comparison study between experimental data with the ANN model developed fitted well in the present work.

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Preparation of eco-friendly antifungals derived from N-acetylated gemini surfactants for use in the chrome tanning processes of skins and hides

Machuca Laura Marcela and Murguía Marcelo César

Page No. 61-67

The aim of this work was to compare two novel antifungal agents with 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole (TCMTB). For this study, two gemini surfactants (3b and 3e) were efficiently synthesized and formulated. The antifungal potency of these compounds was tested and their effectiveness as leather preservatives during the chrome-tanning process was assessed using the environmental chamber test (ASTM D 3273-00 Standard) and wet-blue hides on a plate with culture medium (ASTM D 4576-08 Standard).

Two strains were used to perform the study: Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 and Penicillum citrinum ATCC 9849 3b and 3e showed the ability to preserve hides because of their antifungal activity present in chromium tanning specimens. Compound 3e was found to be a more potent antifungal than compound 3b, but not as potent as TCMTB. This cationic gemini compound (3e) was less toxic than TCMTB for Daphnia magna as a biological model. This work is the result of a patent of invention registered in the patent offices from Argentina.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Arrowroot Starch (Maranta Arundinacea L) using Crude Enzyme Extract isolated from Termite (Nasutitermes Sp) for Bioethanol

Irwansyah Putra, Zulkarnain Chaidir, Syafrizayanti and Hilfi Pardi

Page No. 68-73

Bioethanol can be produced from plant feedstocks that have high carbohydrate (starch) content such as sugarcane, sap, mango, sorghum, cassava, palm, arrowroot bulbs, maize, sweet potatoes (organic waste and rice straw). In this study the manufacture of bioethanol from starch arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L) as the substrate using a crude extract of enzyme was isolated from the stomach of termites (Nasutitermes Sp).

The optimum condition of amylase enzyme hydrolysis is pH 6 with a temperature of 60 °C for 60 min using arrowroot starch substrate 2% (w/v), the enzyme activity was obtained 0.32824 U/mL and the resulting glucose was 177.2233 mg/mL while the highest ethanol fermentation efficiency was 37.05 % with 96 h as fermentation time. It can be concluded that the crude extract of enzyme from the worker termites was able to hydrolyze a substrate of starch arrowroot to produce glucose which will be used to manufacture bioethanol.

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Determination of Dimercaprol, Stemetil Injections and some Sulpha Drugs by In-Situ generated Potassium Trithiocarbonate in Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)

Singh Jasvir

Page No. 74-82

A convenient and precise titrimetric method has been described to determine dimercaprol, stemetil and some sulpha drugs with potassium trithiocarbonate. The red colour which develops instantly by mixing drug compounds with the reagent in DMSO has been found to be stable for 2 and has been measured at 440 nm. The determination has been done meticulously by adopting three techniques i.e. visually (to the appearance of red colour), pH metrically (sharp rise in pH at equivalence-point) and photometrically (440 nm).

The present work, therefore, discussed the use of the in-situ generated reagent by adding few drops of carbon disulphide to a known amount of potassium hydroxide which has been extended to the determination of drugs in commercial formulations. The recoveries have been in the range of 97.7-101.1% (using visually and pH-metric titration) and 97.8 - 101.3% (using photometric titrations) with RSD's in the range of 0.2-0.6% and 0.3-0.7% respectively.

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Structural study of complexes of hexafluoroacetylacetone and its enamine derivatives with certain metals

Al-Hilfi Jassim Abas, Al hilfi Ali H. and Ahmed Luma M.

Page No. 83-90

The synthesis of complexes is carried out in two steps: first step formation of acetyl acetone and hexafluoroacetylacetone with Ni(II) and Co(III), second step formation in enamine of acetylacetone and enamine of hexafluoroacetylacetone with Ni(II) and Co(III). The prepared compounds have been characterized by melting point, FT-IR and NMR. There are two interesting peaks in NMR for enol form and keto form in enamine and ketamine respectively. While, the vinylic proton peak was clear coupled with the enamine nitrogen atom of hexafluoroacetylacetone and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentaanedione, but it did not clear the enamine from acetyl acetone.

In addition, a triplet 1:1:1 as intensity at 51 Hz coupling constant occurred at the vinylic peak. The complexes structural had a main structure are enamine form. All complexes are bidonate, so, in the first step they donated electrons from two oxygen atoms, meanwhile, by the second step the donation from nitrogen atom and oxygen atom happened. The results also found that all prepared complexes were paramagnetic, they were characterized by magnetic susceptibility and therefore the NMR spectra of prepared complexes were not clear except the prepared complex of hexafluoroacetylacetone as a ligand with nickel metal. FT-IR spectra of prepared complexes showed that the FT-IR spectrum of hexafluoroacetylacetone (enol-form) was found at narrow OH band, while it occurs as a very broad band in the acetyl acetone spectrum.

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Kinetic and Isotherm Studies of Lead Removal from Aqueous Solution using Graphene oxide-zeolite Nanocomposite

Joshi Gayatri Y., Konale Ram A., Patil Sachin D., Attarde Sanjay B. and Ingle Sopan T.

Page No. 91-100

The GOZ was synthesized by modified Hummer’s method and hydrothermal reaction respectively using graphite and fly ash. The synthesized GOZ was characterized by FTIR and FESEM. The experimental results shows that the GOZ nanocomposite material was analyzed for adsorption of lead by using batch adsorption studies. Various kinetic models like Pseudo-first-order, Pseudo-second-order and Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms were used to check the accuracy of adsorption data. The results reveals that the kinetic data were best fitted with Pseudo-first-order reaction (R2 0.9904) and Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 23.36 mg/g. The reusability after the 6th cycle assured 63 % adsorption. Overall, investigation results reveal that GOZ has more adsorption capacity as compared to present available adsorbents.

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De Novo Design of NNRTIs of HIV-1: A Molecular Docking and Virtual Screening Approach

Raghuvanshi Urmila and Sapre Nitin

Page No. 101-111

De novo design of nine NNRTIs of HIV-1 showing high predicted anti-viral activity is achieved using molecular docking procedures on a set of ATC derivatives. The dataset of 183 ATC molecules procured from the literature is docked into the crystal structure of protein (Pdb ID 2VG5) obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Non-linear (Back Propagation Neural Network, Support Vector Machine) and linear (Multiple Linear) chemometric regression methods are used to achieve correlation of docking descriptors with the HIV-1 antiviral activity.

The relative potential of these methods is also assessed. BPNN (r2 = 0.885, MSE = 0.196, q2 = 0.863) describes the relationship between the descriptors and antiviral activity relatively better than SVM-ε-radial (r2 = 0.879, MSE = 0.184, q2 = 0.877) and MLR(r2 = 0.819, MSE = 0.257, q2 = 0.819). Virtual dataset (VDS) of 500 compounds has been created. The compounds of the VDS are screened virtually using previously used docking algorithm. Nine of the extracted Novel NNRTIs of HIV-1 have shown better estimated anti-viral activity compared to the highest active ligand (pEC50=8.82) of the initial dataset.

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Synthesis, spectral analysis and antimicrobial evaluation of bioactive transition metal complexes with tridentate ligands obtained from 2-carboxybenzaldehyde

Sudesh and Sonika

Page No. 112-119

The three new aroyl hydrazone ligands and their complexes of Zinc(II), Copper(II), Nickel(II), Cobalt(II) have been synthesised. Metal complexes are prepared by reacting transition metal chlorides with hydrazone ligands which were derived from 2-carboxybenzaldehyde and para-substituted benzhydrazides. The synthesized compounds were thoroughly analyzed by various spectroscopic techniques i.e. proton NMR, 13C-NMR, ESR, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and electronic spectroscopy. The thermal analysis of synthesized ligands and metal complexes has been done by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Spectral and thermal analysis confirmed the monobasic tridentate behavior of ligands which coordinate with metal ions through carbonyl oxygen (present in ketonic form), azomethine nitrogen and oxygen of carboxyl group. The geometry of metal complexes was found to be octahedral and the same was analysed from results of analytical techniques.

The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the synthesized compounds have been checked against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger (yeast). The enhanced activity of transition metal complexes was described on the basis of chelation theory. The results revealed the wonderful activity of zinc complexes against all the microorganisms.

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Synthesis, Characterization, Quantum Mechanical and Biological Studies of Oxidovanadium (IV) Acetylsalicylhydroxamate

Priya Bhanu, Kumar Abhishek and Sharma Neeraj

Page No. 120-137

In this study, the new oxidovanadium (IV) complex [VO(AcSHA)2] (where AcSHA is acetylsalicylhydroxamate ion= C6H4(OCOCH3) CONHO-) has been synthesized by the reaction of VOSO4.5H2O with AcSH2A in absolute alcohol. The complex and its ligand is examined by elemental analysis, magnetic moment and is characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, ESR and mass spectrophotometry. Bonding through carbonyl and hydroxamic oxygen atoms (O, O coordination) has been inferred from IR spectra while the acetyl group is not involved in bonding suggesting the bidentate nature of the acetylsalicylhydroxamate ligand. The magnetic moment, ESR and mass spectra have suggested complex to be unimolecular. The electrochemical behavior of synthesized complex studied by CV technique has suggested VOV / VOIV pseudo-reversible redox couple. The molecular properties viz. ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), chemical potential (µ), hardness (η), softness (S), electronegativity (χ) and electrophilicity index (ω) of the complex using B3LYP/ 6-31/+G (d,p) method have also been determined using HOMO-LUMO energy values. The biological screening of complex against pathogenic Gram +ve bacteria and Gram –ve bacteria by MIC method has shown good efficiency.

The in vitro cytotoxicity of ligand and complex studied on human muscle rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) by MTT assay has depicted complex to be more effective than ligand. The DNA binding study with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) shows absorbance shifts in UV-Vis spectra which is suggestive of direct interaction with edges of base pairs involving groove binding mode. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) and Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) have indicated spontaneous binding affinity of the ligand with complex.

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Nano-ZnO as valuable catalyst for organic transformations: A review

Sachdeva Harshita

Page No. 138-147

There has been tremendous growth in the catalytic applications of transition metal nanoparticles since last two decades. Among metal oxide nanoparticles, nano-ZnO has been applied as mild, cheap, non-toxic, environmentally safe and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of potentially biodynamic heterocycles.

The present review highlights some important applications of nano-ZnO as an efficient and eco-friendly catalyst for the synthesis of diverse biologically important scaffolds reported so far. A general overview of ZnO nanoparticles and heterocyclic compounds has been presented followed by a discussion on the design and synthesis of diverse heterocycles using ZnO NPs as an efficient, green and reusable catalyst.

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Engineered nanoparticles in air pollution remediation technologies

Vani Padmaja G. and Srivastava Shruti

Page No. 148-151

Rapid urbanization and industrial growth has led to many human-made pollutants in the environment which resist degradation through natural physicochemical processes and disrupt the ecosystem and causing ecological imbalance. Present research demands for the new technologies across the globe to develop nanomaterials that can efficiently and smartly can trap CO2, CO and other harmful gases from the air, capture hazardous and toxic pollutants from water and degrade solid waste into useful products. Nanoparticles and nanomaterials could be used to mitigate pollution and are highly recyclable in nature. Studies reveal that structured SiO2-TiO2 nanoparticles coatings show excellent superhydrophilic and antifogging properties along with photo catalytic activities for organic pollutants thereby exhibiting self-cleaning property.

Cyclodextrin functionalized nanostructured silica materials have strong binding affinities for chemical substances such as metal ions, toxic gases, dyes, pesticides, and drugs. Structurally designed and engineered nanoparticles exhibit outstanding mechanical properties and compatibility owing to their unique physical and chemical composition with large surface-area-to-volume ratios with high interfacial reactivity and with highly functionalized binding sites.

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Covid 19: Indian Scenario with New Non-Natural Risk

Waghmode Shobha, Agrawal Apoorv, Gadale Sharada and Garg Shankar

Page No. 152-157

On December 2019, a pneumonia of unknown cause was detected in Wuhan, China. The outbreak traced to be a novel strain of coronavirus, which was given the name 2019-nCoV by WHO and later renamed SARS CoV-2 by the ICTV. The disease spread globally and as of 6th April, 2020, there are more than 1,136,851 confirmed cases and 62,955 deaths from nCoV-2019 reported all over the globe. In Indian perspective as on today 6th April 2020, total cases are 4281 and fatality number is 111 since 30th January 2020 when first case in Kerala state was reported. It has now been declared as a public health emergency of international concern by WHO. So, to get rid of this catastrophe, combating the new virus and its epidemic is a matter of concern.

Also question arises that whether Covid 19 is New Non-Natural Risk??This study explains total analysis of this infection with respect to rest of the globe. Also, it explains present and future impacts of this on society. It also explains pharma drug progress with vaccine update and antiviral drugs. This study also explains impact of this pandemic on medical, economic and psychological level in the society. Indians have good governance with social distancing.

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