Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Vol. 5(1) March 2001

Potentiometric Stripping Analysis of Soluble Lead in the Glassware used for Needs of Food and Pharmaceutical Industry

Biljana M. Kalicanin, Zoran B.Todorovic,Nikola J.Marjanovic,Zvonimir J.Suturovic

Method for determining the soluble lead in the glassware by the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) has been defined. In order to ascertain optimum conditions for determination the effect of mercury time electrodeposition, electrolysis potential, the solution stirring rate and electrolysis time of the lead analytical signal has been examined. Linearity of the lead analytical signal was achieved within the wide range of the mass concentrations, from 2 mg/dm3 to 16 mg/dm3. 4 % acetic acid was used as supporting electrolyte. It was utilized also as lead extracting agent from glassware for needs of food and pharmaceutical industry. All stripping analysis was done using the stripping analyzer designed and manufactured in our country. On the basis of the investigation results the method for determining the soluble lead in the glassware by the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) was defined.

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Phthalocyanines Sensitized Fragmentation of Proteins

S. Klementova, D. Tothova, R. Revakova, M. Kaskova and D.M. Wagnerova

Serum proteins (albumins and globulins) and three histones were irradiated by sodium low pressure lamp in the presence of several phthalocyanines, both producing and non-producing singlet oxygen. Irradiation of proteins with phthalocyanines producing 1O2 leads to fragmentation (breaking of aminoacid chain) of all proteins; globulines are split at random places giving a number of fragments in the range of molecular weights 5,000 to 60,000; albumin gives a fragment of m.w. approx. 30,000; histones give fragments of m.w. 7,000-12,000. Fragmentation was also observed with globulins and albumin irradiated in the presence of two phthalocyanines non-producing 1O2, tetra-sulfonated phthalocyanines of Co(II) or Fe(III): fragments of m.w. 7,000 - 10,000, 39,000 and 44,000 were produced under irradiation of globulin fraction, fragment of m.w. 30,000 was produced under irradiation of albumin. Interactions of individual proteins with phthalocyanines and numer of phthalocyanine molecules bound per one molecule of a protein were studied by measuring difference VIS spectra. The number of phthalocyanine molecules bound per one protein molecule differ in the range from zero to four molecules.

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Solid Waste Management in Govt. Opium & Alkaloid Works, Neemuch (M.P.) : Use of Incinerator for environment friendly disposal of Factory Solid Waste or Marc, and Registration of the Filter Aid for Recycling in the Process House

Arun Agnihotri, O.P. Luharia and Sadhana Banerjee

Govt. Opium & Alkaloid Works, Neemuch is a pharmaceutical industrial unit under Ministry of Finance, Dept. of Revenue, Govt. of India. The Unit is engaged in the manufacture of valuable drugs in bulk quantities from Opium. In the process an aqueous solution of opium is prepared followed by its filteration. Opium being a plant latex, it is viscous and gummy and does not easily get filtered. To facilitate filteration, therefore, a filter aid such as Perlite or Diatomaceous Earth is being regularly used in the process house for Opium Broth filteration. The solid residue left after filteration is termed as Marc. This is the Solid Waste of Process, falling under stream 34.1 of Amended Rules, 2000 of Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling). For Disposal of Factory Solid Waste the Landfill and Incineration modes of disposal were studied in details. The study revealed that the process of Incineration of the Waste is more economical, feasible and suitablefor our purpose. In this mode of disposal, there shall be no solid waste left for disposal i.e. Zeroing of solid waste and it also regenerates a valuable raw material for recycling in process house. The ash obtained after Incineration, which is to the extent 35-55%, i.e. almost one third to half the original amount of Factory solid waste, was activated and this was found to be an equivalent substitute of fresh Filter Aid. The results further showed that regenerated filter aid could be repeately used after regeneration and activation, where no loss of activity was noticed. The paper presents the concept, Lab scale experiments, emission qualities of flue gases, commercial trials of recovered Filter aid or Ash.

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A Novel Ionophoretic Technique in the Study of Metal Complexes

R.K.P. Singh and Sameena Aziz

Ionophoretic technique has been used for the study of leucine complexes of Ni(II) and Co(II). Two complexes NiL* and NiL2 are formed with Ni (II) whereas with Co (II) only one complex CoL* is formed. Their stability constants Ni(II) (K1 = 9.75, K2 = 8.72) and Co(II) (K1 = 9.16) respectively have been determined at 25C and ionic strength M = 0.1 (NaClO4).

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The Study of Radio-Nuclides and Heavy Metals in the Gharesoo and Balkhochay River and Shoorabile Lake in Ardabile City

Hossein Ghafourian. Jaleh Faroukhsamani, Fatemeh Sarabian

The aim of this study is to investigate chemical properties of waters of Ardabile City. Amount of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co and U were determined in the waters of this area. It has been shown that in some cases the amount of these elements were more than the standard levels.

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Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Commercially Edible Fishes of Gangetic West Bengal

Ashim Kumar Bhattacharya, Amlesh Choudhury and Abhijit Mitra

Zinc, Copper and Lead were analyzed in the muscle tissues of commercially edible fishes sampled from the upper stretch of Gangetic region of West Bengal. Simultaneous analysis of the metals was also carried out in the ambient sediment and aquatic phases to monitor the degree of accumulation. Metal accumulation showed high degree of species specificity. The order of accumulation of the heavy metals was Zinc > Copper > Lead.

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Synthesis and Biological activity of few novel substituted Quinolines

Satish M. Bhalekar and P.S. Fernandes

1-(4-Aminophenyl)-3, 5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole1 when treated with malondialdehyde of (a) 2-methyl benzimidazole2, (b) 2-methyl benzthiazole3 and (c) 2-methyl benzoxazole4 in presence of glacial acetic acid and p-toluene sulphonic acid undergoes cyclo condensation to yield 3-substituted-6-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-1-yl) quinolines. Structural assignments have been made on the basis of spectral data, elemental analysis and chemical behaviour. All the compounds have been tested for their biological activity.

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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 1-Chloro-2-Formyl-and Pyrazolo[3, 4-a] Carbazole Derivatives

M. Sekar and M. Karunakaran

Carbazole derivatives 1a-c on treatment with Vilsmeier Haack reagent (DMF/POCl3) yield the corresponding 1-Chloro-2-formylcarbazole derivatives 2a-c which on reaction with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol furnished pyrazolo [3, 4-a] carbazole derivatives 3a-c. All the chloro formyl compounds 2a-c have been tested for their antibacterial activity with chloroamphenicol as a reference compound.

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Co-Ordination Polymers based on Mixed BIS-Ligand : 5-(3-Acetyl-4-Hydroxy-1-Phenylazo)-8-Quinolinol (AHPQ)

D.S. Raj

Co-ordination polymers of novel mixed bis ligand namely 5-(3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-1-phenylazo)-8-quinolinol (AHPQ) have been prepared with different metal ions like Zn+2, Cu+2, Ni+2, Co+2 and Mn+2. The novel mixed bis bidentate ligand (AHPQ) was synthesized by coupling of diazotised 5-amino-8-quinolinol with 2-hydroxyacetophenone. AHPQ was in form of red azo dye. This mixed bisligand and its co-ordination polymers are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral and diffuse reflectance spectral studies for their structural determination. The thermal stability and number average molecular weight (Mn) of all these co-ordination polymers have been estimated respectively by thermogravimetry and non-aqueous conductometric titration method. Besides this all the co-ordination polymers have also been characterized by their magnetic moment and metal to ligand (M:L) ratio.The co-ordination polymers were also assessed as mordent dying on nylon fabric and monitored for fungicidal activity against various plant pathogens.

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Electrochemical Determination of Hydrazine based on Chemically Modified Electrode

D. Ravi Shankaran and S. Sriman Narayanan

A new modified electrode was constructed by mechanical immobilisation of copper hexacyanoferrate complex onto a graphic electrode. The electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine was effective at the modified electrode at a significantly reduced potential and in a broader pH range. The amperometric determination of hydrazine was linear in the concentration range of 1x104 to 1.2x103 M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The proposed method is simple and exhibited good stability, reproducibility and faster response.

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Comparative Assessment of Ecosystem Health in Some Tropical Shallow Wetlands

Subhendu Datta

Using chemical oxygen demand (COD) as criteria, Ecosystem health of five shallow tropical wetlands differing in qualitative and quantitative aspects of pollution and productivity was assessed in the present study. There was spatial, temporal as well as vertical variation of chemical oxygen demand in the wetlands investigated for a period of two successive annual cycles. The study suggests that the wetland receiving organic rich effluents from a brewery factory throughout the year was more stable than the remaining wetlands.

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Utilization of Black Liquor Lignin as Soil Amendment

S.D. Sharma, Sanjay Naithani , H.C. Joshi & S.V. Singh

The small pulp and paper mills with less than 50 tpd capacity based on agricultural residue do not recover the cooking chemical due to non-availability of techno-economical chemical recovery system. The mills either discharge the liquor into nearby stream, which causes water pollution, or treat the liquor in biological treatment plant. The spent pulping liquor contains lignin as the major organic component responsible for pollution and since the lignin is broadly nonbiodegradable, the treatment by biological methods does not yield any reduction in COD, BOD, and colour. The lignin was therefore, modified to increase its biodegradability by the incorporation of nitrogen. The study revealed that the nitrogen enrichment enhanced the biodegradability of lignin and the lignin thus modified, when applied to soil, underwent humification and improved the properties of soil and growth performance of plants.

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Intrinsic Sorption Potential of Sr2+ onto Synthetic Phologopite gel

O.P. Shrivastava and Rashmi Shrivastava

Strontium sorption capacity of the hydrothermal gel similar to mica mineral phlogopite [KMg3(Si3AlO10)OH2] had been investigated at room temperature. The title gel has been synthesized hydrothermally at 160C. The strontium selectivity of the gel has been studied in presence of 2000 times concentrated competing cations viz., Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ba2+ and Ca2+. The strontium sorption capacity has been studied in presence of sodium and in pure strontium solution. The strontium uptake capacity has been reported as selectivity coefficient (Kd) and milliequivalent (meq) of strontium per 100g of the gel. The gel could be used for immobilization and solidification of nuclear waste generated from the nuclear power plants.

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Synthesis of some new Azo dyes from Isatoic Anhydride

R.D. Pandit, A.P. Joshi & V.G. Bhave

A number of new azo dyes have been synthesised by coupling diazotised starch anthranilates with various couplers. Starch anthranilates were prepared by condensing isatoic anhydride with different starches. Anthranilic acid and Anthranilate esters are used in the synthesis of number of coloured compounds used as pigments and dyes1-4. The use of these esters in ink and other coating compositions too has been studied5,6.

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Significant Health Hazards due to Radioactivity of Radons Exposure to the Environment of Himalayan District of Uttarkashi Garhwal India

Virendra Joshi, Jayender Singh, H.S. Nautiyal and D.D. Maithani

A few of basic results from a radioactive survey in the mud houses in Uttarkashi District of Garhwal have been carried out. The radioactive Radon values were recorded and found to be higher than the recommended values under normal ventilation. The estimated total life time risk and loss of life expectancy had been found to be 0.60 per Bq/m3 and 14 years, respectively. The obtained values in mud houses in Uttarkashi are of significant importance for conducting detailed investigations of this area.

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Phytochemical Screening of Some Folklore Herabaceous Legumes of Trichirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India

T.P. Karthikeyani* and J.M. Sashikumar

Thirteen herbaceous legumes belonging to 9 genera have been collected from Trichirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, phytochemically screened and the detected bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, steroids and tannins are reported along with their traditional uses.

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Concentration of HCHs in the Sediments Samples from the River Ganges in Bihar, India

Anupma Kumari, R.K. Sinha and Krishna Gopal

Sediment samples from the Ganges River between Buxar and Rajmahal in Bihar, India were analyzed to estimate the presence of HCHs. The concentrations of HCHs in the sediment samples were found between 921 and 1786.4 ng/g respectively. The concentration of these organochlorines exceeded the permissible limits recommended by USEPA (United States Environment Protection Agency).

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Environment Pollution of Lead : An Update Review

K. Goswami

There is a close nexus between over-population, economic deprivation, increasing poverty and malnutrition. The situation is further compounded by pollutants in the environment. Lead poisoning is an environmental and public health hazard of globalproportions. At the same time, lead poisoning is intensely local in nature, as the causes of poisoning vary widely from country to country and from community to community. Strategies to prevent lead poisoning, therefore, depend on concerted efforts at the international, national and local levels.

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